“There remains one especially unsatisfactory feature [of the Standard Model of particle physics]: the observed masses of the particles, m. There is no theory that adequately explains these numbers. We use the numbers in all our theories, but we do not understand them – what they are, or where they come from. I believe that from a fundamental point of view, this is a very interesting and serious problem.” |

R.P. Feynman |

... Standard Theory, which today can explain many phenomena that we observe in Physics, has a serious shortcoming whereby a wide range of experimental data has to be input into it without the explanatory support of a theoretical calculation ...
In order to address the nature of physical quantities, we introduce Fantappič's continuous group, published in "memoria serie VIII‑vol.XVII‑fasc.5" in November 1954, where each rotational symmetry can occur around the 5 axes of the space in which it is immersed. ... Gödel's theorems establish that if the laws of nature are truly coherent, as we believe they are, then they must have some form of ... internal formulation that is different from anything that is known to us today ...
... in recent years a number of elegant and powerful mathematical structures have come to light for a new definition of the concepts of space and time and they all seem to concur on one point: the existence of an "underlying structure" from which all physical quantities derive ... the only problem is that the structures that have been considered up to now " |

**The value of λ is of such great importance because of the fact that it can be derived theoretically on the basis of a thought experiment in Thermodynamics. **

Indeed, if we take a monatomic gas of mass m=1 travelling at a velocity **V _{1} ≃ C ** and, by using a perfect diffuser, slow it down to a velocity

then the gas will undergo an increase in enthalpy:

**
ΔH _{MAX} = CP ΔT_{MAX} = (V_{1}^{2} -V_{2 }^{2} ) / 2
**

Ignoring all the other forms of energy...

From this equation we can now derive the maximum stagnation temperature of this ideal gas considering that

**
2C _{P} = R(ℓ+2)
**

We have taken into consideration a monatomic gas such as hydrogen with the (very probable!) condition that the protons can be considered not to have any internal degrees of freedom, so that ℓ, in this case, should coincide with the dimensions of the space in which each element of this gas can move.

Therefore, assuming ℓ = 5 we can calculate: Which shows that the maximum temperature Tº that can be obtained from this experiment agrees perfectly with the values of maximum temperature measured in real experiments when a ray of protons travelling at a velocity

The theoretically calculated temperature however is only equal to the temperature measured experimentally (derived from the work of R, Hagedorm at the CERN in Geneva in 1971) if the number of degrees of freedom RR of the protons taken into account is five.

From this experiment we can deduce that

E_{MAX} = κT_{MAX} = 2,115250996 * 10^{-4} erg.

On the other hand, the maximum energy can also be defined with the equation where

Consequently, the maximum energy due to the maximum frequency that can exist in three‑dimensional space is:

**
E _{MAX}" = 3/5 * ℏ * C/λ_{0}
**

where θ = 1,23....*10-^{21} α = fine-structure constant R_{5} = 10 independent rotations in a 5D space

In the following calculations therefore we shall use the fourth root of the modulus of the distance λ

**
2πλ _{0} * 4/3πλ_{0}^{3} = 8/3 * π2 * λ_{0}^{4}
**

It is therefore necessary to define the nature of this new

The value of all the real physical quantities prove to be definable by the kinetics of a modulus of distance

Therefore when a particular radius

We therefore find that when the radius

It will also transpire that when the dimensions of the radius

And so if the radius λ

**
The existence of a new type of space is therefore found, that is only made up of micro-displacements λ _{X} < λ_{0}
**

In 5D Space, Time is also considered to be made up of the

Let us define the

On the other hand let us define an

and

And, therefore, there will only be linear micro-oscillations in 2D, 3D, and 4D spaces where λ

Five Dimensional space will therefore be made up of both

1) rotations of real moduli λ

2) olinear oscillations of linear micro-moduli

It therefore transpires that motion in the Universe is made up of 2 types of space

A) one for the rotation of real radii

B) and the other for very small linear displacements λ

**
MODULUS Δt = λ _{X}
VELOCITY Δt^{3} = λ_{X}^{3}
DISTANCE Δt^{4} = λ_{X}^{4}
**

Indeed, in an instant in 5D space only (λ

10 instantaneous micro-displacements λ

10 instantaneous micro-displacements λ

can be formed, which will give rise to

10 quantities ΔS * Δt * Δt = [Δt

10 quantities ΔX * ΔY * ΔZ * Δt = [Δt

Ultimately we can conclude that in each instant Δt, quantities of velocity and distance, i.e. invisible velocity vectors and distance vectors L, are

**
Let us call these invisible quantities dark quantities.
**

Vst [Δt^{3}] ∧ L_{XYZ} [Δt^{4}] = [Δt^{7}]

{ [Δt^{7}] * [Δt^{7}] } = [Δt^{14}]

10

10

10

can be formed together with

**
( Velocity [Δt ^{3}] ∧ Distance [Δt^{4}] ) * ( Velocity [Δt^{3}] ∧ Distance [Δt^{4}] ) = [Δt^{14}]
**

which represent 5

We will see later that in order to form the value of real fundamental quantities of 5D space such as the

It will therefore always be necessary to use energy to form an ordered quantity starting from disordered elements.

And so in order to transform the group of 10

The number of quantities V

we will find that out of these 9 types of velocity in 5D space there exist 10, like the

XY, XZ, XS, XT, YZ, YS, YT, ZS, ZT, ST planes

This will establish that a fundamental characteristic of 5D space is that of having bodies that can rotate with 90 velocities in different directions.The number 90 is one of the characteristics of 5D space that has links with Dirac and Euler. 5D space, where velocities V

As a result, we can conclude that in 5D space, in order to obtain real energy, we must first transform them into 5 ordered real masses.

The value of Dark Masses, M O= 8.45*10

And so in an Instant in 5D space, 5 disordered Dark masses are formed the value of which is 5 times the normal disordered mass that is determined as the sum of galaxies without a specific order.

Summarizing therefore, DARK masses are formed as a result of the product of:

10 micro-quantities ([Δt] * [Δt]

10 micro-quantities [Δt] * [Δt]

that will form 10 rotations V [Δt]

[Δt]

i.e. 5 instantaneous masses positioned in five 4D hyper-volumes XYZS, XYZT, YZST, ZSTX, XYST, of 5D space.

But the energy of the 5 non-ordered instantaneous masses[Δt]

Indeed, it was found that the experimental ratio between

does not coincide with the values of

We have already seen that in order to derive the value of real fundamental quantities of 5D space, such as the

In order to find the value of the Dark Energy of these masses, characterized by 70 random directions, it will first be necessary to transform them into ordered quantities.

It will therefore be necessary to have an amount of energy (entropy) to form order in these masses.

For this purpose we shall use the entropic coefficient

( ε

Then, subtracting a certain amount of energy, calculated by using the coefficient (γ.= 1,010756 , from the 5 instantaneous

**
M O * C ^{2}/γ^{70} = 3,2196 * 10^{77}erg / 2.14 = 1,5044 * 10^{77}erg
**

**
M * C ^{2} = 1.518.. * 10^{77}erg / γ^{70} (= 2,14) = 0,70934 * 10^{77}erg
**

** Energy of the Universe **

**
1,5044 * 10 ^{77}erg + 0,70934 * 10^{77}erg = 2,21374 * 10^{77}erg
**

** Dark Energy / Energy of the Universe
1,5044 * 10 ^{77}erg / 2,21374 = 0, 67958
0,683 / 0, 67958 = 1, 0050
**

which differs from the experimental value by 0.5% ...!

The two angular velocities ω

a) the time for a T

b) the angle θ between 4D and 3D radii

c) an equation containing 7 dimensionless constants with the compelling definitions of each physical quantity.

**
GF = ( 2 ^{∓A} * 3^{∓B} * 5 ^{∓C} * π^{∓D} ) * ( θ^{∓S} * γ^{∓r} * α^{∓0} * (T_{0}^{N})
**

speed of light c gravitational constant electron mass proton mass neutron mass Planck mass elementary charge Planck's constant fundamental length in String Theory

Representing all the fundamental physical quantities by their rotation number t

t^{1} = time period = Δ Ψ^{1}

t^{3} = velocity V = Δ Ψ^{3} = Δ Ψ^{4} / Δ Ψ^{1}

t^{4} = L = real distance = Δ Ψ^{4}

and in 5D space quantities are formed such as .....

t

t

t

t

t

t

t

t

The number of fundamental orbits that are necessary to form all the fundamental physical quantities will therefore be

Moreover, due to their co-existence in the 10 planes of SS it will also be necessary to form N different orbits where

This coincidence shows that the masses, the energies etc. of the universe depend on groups of unique motions T

Therefore, if we consider that in 5D space there are

a) An acceleration to which a body is subjected with micro-rotations in a 5D orbit

b) An acceleration with instantaneous linear displacements in the XYZ and ST directions that form the acceleration to which a body in motion is subjected simultaneously in both a rotating and an inertial frame of reference …

It is all about classifying them in their various dimensions, identifying their characteristic properties and studying the link between these properties and the spaces of physical theories.

In Poincaré's original formulation, the conjecture states that every simply connected, closed 3‑manifold is (topologically) a 3‑sphere. A 3‑sphere in this case is the generalization of the usual sphere in three‑dimensional space (which is two‑dimensional and therefore a 2‑sphere).

In a less formal sense, the conjecture states that, in the same way as for a 2‑sphere, a 3‑sphere is the only possible type of closed three dimensional manifold "without any holes" (which reiterates the "simply connected" hypothesis)

This conjecture leads us to the question:

Will an instantaneous 4D surface formed by 2D surfaces be "simply connected"?

In a given instant, instantaneous 2D and 3D micro-rotations should form at point D on the surface of a 4D orbit. It would therefore appear that

And so in an instant ΔT, instantaneous micro-rotations should form in 2D ST space and in 3D XYZ space, specifically instantaneous micro rotations of

Sergio Serapioni, 2016

Write to: